Sunday, July 5, 2020
Conforming to, and Deviating from, Genre Conventions in Spensers Sonnet 15 - Literature Essay Samples
English sonnets often explore the theme of love and the ladyÃ¢â¬â¢s eternal beauty. Edmund Spenser was one of the best known Elizabethan sonneteers during the 16th century. In 1595, he composed a total of eighty-nine sonnets in his sonnet cycle Ã¢â¬Å"AmorettiÃ¢â¬ , following his courtship of Elizabeth Boyle, the woman he later married. (Librivox). However, Sonnet 15 from Ã¢â¬Å"AmorettiÃ¢â¬ is a little different to typical sonnets because it breaks with the stereotypical appraisal of the womanÃ¢â¬â¢s physical beauty. This can be seen in the final couplet where Spenser creates a dramatic reversal stating that his ladyÃ¢â¬â¢s mind and virtue are the fairest of her traits. On the other hand, although SpenserÃ¢â¬â¢s sonnet breaks some gender stereotypes, it actually reinforces the male poetÃ¢â¬â¢s perspective and stereotypes the lady. This can be seen through the first sestet focusing on the stereotypes of the merchants, the second sestet Spenser uses the form of blazon t o praise his ladyÃ¢â¬â¢s beauty, and the ending couplet creating a dramatic reversal acclaiming her mind and virtue. In Ã¢â¬Å"Sonnet 15Ã¢â¬ the speaker claims to appreciate the ladyÃ¢â¬â¢s virtuous mind virtue above all her physical traits, unlike conventional sonnets, however his focus on the ladys outward appearance suggests otherwise. This can be seen through SpenserÃ¢â¬â¢s description of the merchants who trade for profit. The speaker begins the quatrain by mocking the merchantsÃ¢â¬â¢ Ã¢â¬Å"weary toilÃ¢â¬ (Spenser) as they search for treasures, when he claims that all the Ã¢â¬Å"worldÃ¢â¬â¢s richesÃ¢â¬ (Spenser) can be found within his lady. This metaphor objectifies his muse comparing her qualities to money and wealth. Furthermore, in the third line he states that the treasures in both Ã¢â¬Å"IndiasÃ¢â¬ (Spenser) cannot compare to the beauty of his love. Here Spenser uses hyperbole and not only stereotypes the merchants, but also focuses on the ladyÃ¢â¬â¢s physical appearance exclusively, in a similar way to conventional sonnets. For example, in line 4 he states Ã¢â¬Å" What needeth you to seek so far in vain?Ã¢â¬ (Spenser). These four lines suggest the MerchantsÃ¢â¬â¢ tireless search for wealth, but the word Ã¢â¬Å"vainÃ¢â¬ diminishes their hard work by saying that their efforts are futile. Thus Spencer objectifies his muse when he compares her to the merchantsÃ¢â¬â¢ monetary gains, or the material treasures that they seek. He states that she contains within her, Ã¢â¬Å"All this worldÃ¢â¬â¢s richesÃ¢â¬ yet these Ã¢â¬Å"richesÃ¢â¬ are firmly connected to the outward trappings of material wealth. In the blazon, Spencer lists all the treasures the merchants seek in order to praise Elizabeth BoyleÃ¢â¬â¢s outer appearance. Therefore, even though Spencer mocks the merchants about their Ã¢â¬Å"treasuresÃ¢â¬ , he effectively objectifies his love by describing her in terms of these treasures. Thus, Sonnet 15 reinforces stereotypes by describing the lady in terms of material wealth. SpenserÃ¢â¬â¢s Ã¢â¬Å"Sonnet 15Ã¢â¬ challenges some of the stereotypical conventions of sonnets of the 16th century, however, through his use of the popular blazon, it can be clearly seen that the poet does objectify the lady in the conventional manner. Although, the couplet at the end creates a dramatic reversal emphasizing his ladyÃ¢â¬â¢s mind and virtue, Spenser spends five lines exclusively describing her physical appearance in terms of objects of material wealth. One example is the metaphor, Ã¢â¬Å"her teeth be pearls both pure and roundÃ¢â¬ (Spenser). The word Ã¢â¬Å"roundÃ¢â¬ indicates perfection, and suggests her teeth are flawless, white pearls. Further developing the material wealth metaphor, he describes her appearance in terms of cold, lifeless stones or metals such as Ã¢â¬Å"rubiesÃ¢â¬ , Ã¢â¬Å"sapphiresÃ¢â¬ and gold. In line 11, he says Ã¢â¬Å"if Gold, her locks are finest gold on groundÃ¢â¬ (Spenser). In this part, Spenser alliterates the last thre e words Ã¢â¬Å"gold on groundÃ¢â¬ . This phrase emphasizes her beauty, and the assonance of the vowel Ã¢â¬Å"oÃ¢â¬ suggests the amount and quality of the metal. Gold is a symbol of wealth; thus Spenser is suggesting that her locks are priceless. However, this metaphor also objectifies the lady comparing her warm hair to a lifeless, cold metal associated with wealth. Therefore, it can be seen that Spenser objectifies his lady, using expensive material items that dont reflect the natural world or any kind of human beauty. Lastly, male and female stereotypes can be seen during in the couplet of Ã¢â¬Å"Sonnet 15Ã¢â¬ . After SpenserÃ¢â¬â¢s blazon praising Elizabeth BoyleÃ¢â¬â¢s beauty, he states that above all of her traits, the fairest is her mind and virtue. This greatly contrasts with the blazon providing a turning point in the sonnet. Here Spenser puts emphasis on the most important feature of all which is her intellect and purity or her chastity. However, his claims about the perfection of her mind are questionable as it isnÃ¢â¬â¢t possible to read his ladyÃ¢â¬â¢s mind or analyze her thoughts, thus this statement can be viewed as invasive as he claims that he can read her mind. Furthermore, although the word Ã¢â¬Å"virtuesÃ¢â¬â¢ denotes strong morals and good ethics it can also be interpreted to mean sexual virtue or chastity. Hence, the interpretation is altered if Edmund Spenser believes that her chastity is Elizabeth BoyleÃ¢â¬â¢s finest trait. Traditionally a woman must keep her vir ginity intact for her husband and so the speakerÃ¢â¬â¢s celebration of the ladyÃ¢â¬â¢s virtue reinforces the stereotypical male perspective of the 1500Ã¢â¬â¢s. In this way the woman addressed in the poem is a stereotype too, a male construction. Sonnet 15Ã¢â¬ from Edmund SpenserÃ¢â¬â¢s Amoretti is written in a way that both challenges stereotypes but it also conforms to the sonnet conventions. The couplet does place emphasis on the spiritual traits that Spenser believes to be much superior to his ladyÃ¢â¬â¢s physical appearance, however by discussing her Ã¢â¬Å"virtueÃ¢â¬ , the speaker imposes male values upon her and reinforces traditional stereotypes. Furthermore, as Edmund Spenser includes twelve lines discussing her outer appearance, and only two focusing on the importance of her mind and virtue, his ladyÃ¢â¬â¢s beauty appears to be of greater importance. Thus, even though Ã¢â¬Å"Sonnet 15Ã¢â¬ seems to break the mold and transcend sonnet stereotypes, it actually reinforces many of the conventions.
Saturday, June 27, 2020
Comparison of Welfare Benefits in Alaska and Arizona (Essay Sample) Content: Comparison of Welfare Benefits in Alaska and ArizonaStudent NameUniversityComparison of Welfare Benefits in Alaska and ArizonaWelfare benefits have been controversial throughout US. history. For the motive that colonial period, authoritys welfare coverage has pondered the belief that the indigent are accountable for their poverty, articulated to the principle that governmental benefits are a privilege and no longer a right. The welfare programs emerged during the reign of President Franklin d. Roosevelt who strongly fought for the interest of the common citizens. The increased unemployed rate in United States and financial depression were among the factors that led to emergence of welfare programs. The welfare programs included benefits such as hospital treatment (Medicaid), public housing, meals stamps, and supplemental safety earnings.In the recent welfare reform act, the federal government financed the three main welfare programs in the USA underneath the social se curity act of 1935, Medicaid, and useful resource to families with established kids (AFDC). The Law clearly outline that the following class of people should be beneficiary of welfare programs; the aged, disabled, and unemployed workers and their dependents. Therefore, this article will bring an insight of welfare benefits and a comparison of welfare benefits in the Alaska and Arizona states within the United States.Discussion of the Health BenefitsOut of the need to ensure that all the citizens have access to basic needs, the Federal Government created a transfer program to make sure all people have food, shelter, healthcare, and receive Temporary Assistance for Needy Families (TANF).In Alaska, this program is known as Alaska Temporary Assistance Program (ATAP), which assists parties with a low income along the state and national governments allocations for childrens medical bills among other relief assistance.The federal program plays the following roles in society: assist needy f amilies access relief, prevent and minimize out-of-wedlock pregnancies, encourage the formation of two-parent households, promote job preparations, work, and marriage as a way of reducing dependency. The federal program does not allow residents to acquire public support for more than 60 months. However, people who reside in remote homes, where unemployment affects more than half of the adults, are exempted from time limitations.In order to be qualified for ATAP, one must: be a resident of Alaska, have children below 19 years of age, be pregnant, have low-income level, or soon-to-be employed. According to the Alaska Network on Domestic Violence and Sexual Assault (2015), temporary-basis assistance helps families find work. Recipients are required to find employment within 24 months after receiving their first benefits, and people who fail to develop workable family sufficiency plans are penalized.In addition to the ATAP, there are several other welfare benefits Alaskan residents can qualify for. The most common are the Low Income Home Energy Assistance Program (LIHEAP), the School Breakfast Program (SBP), and the Alaska Weatherization Assistance Program (AWAP). Low Income Home Energy Assistance Program assists people in low-income households with home energy bills by meeting the costs.The Federal Government funds the LIHEAP project, thus helping residents stay warm during the cold winter months. Further, the Alaska Weatherization Assistance Program helps insulate homes for low-income people. The project targets the elderly, somebody with disabilities, residential high-energy consumers, households with unbearable energy bills, and families with children. It is implemented to conserve energy and to assist residents with insufficient means to pay for high utility costs.Thus, reduce risks of health and safety problems, such as illness and eviction, one must be in dire need of financial assistance relating to energy costs. It offers bill payment assistance, weatheri zation, energy-related repairs, and energy crisis assistance. The School Breakfast Welfare Program is a non-profit breakfast fund given to schools and domestic healthcare institutions to access breakfast. The US Department of Agriculture (USAID) Food and Nutrition Services at the federal level administers it. The federal educational branches monitor this program at the state level, while rural school feeding authorities regulate it in learning institutions.The National School Lunch Program (NSLP) is a federally-funded meal assistance program that provides nutritional balanced and low-cost lunches to all children in day schools. The welfare gets funds from the federal government and operates in public, non-profit private schools, and residential childcare institutions.Comparison of Welfare Benefit Programs in Alaska and ArizonaTemporary Assistance Programs have been implemented in both states to help needy people meet basic needs. The focus is to ensure efficiency in service delivery . In both states, the program is designed to offer cash assistance to low-income families with children that one may help the families to achieve self-sufficiency. Recipients of temporary cash benefits in Alaska and Arizona have a 60-month benefit limit. Yet, both states have established differentiation measures between adults and children, where a child getting TANF benefits can receive another 60 months as an adult.Table 1: Head Start ProgramHousehold Size Alaska Arizona 1 $15,060 $12,060 2 $20,290 $16,240 3 $25,520 $20,420 4 $30,750 $24,600 5 $35,980 $28,780 6 $41,210 $36,060 Source: Department of Education Early Development (2017).To promote school readiness of children below the age of five, Alaska and Arizona have adopted the Head Start Federal Welfare Program where children from low-income families can be assisted in developing their memory capacity, and social/emotional enhancement. Head Start ensures there is a proper learning atmosphere that encourages child growth in are as such as literacy and language.This program was designed to help and create meaningful child-parent relationships and promote a good family well-being. Additionally, the program in both states helps toddlers, infants, and pregnant women living below the federal poverty line access a decent life. The program can enroll a maximum of ten-percent of children from households that live below the poverty line and can serve up to 35% of additional children from families whose income exceeds the poverty threshold.Nevertheless, both Arizona and Alaska have limited access to funding for the programs, and there may be insufficient space to take care of all eligible children. While the Head Start Welfare Program is administered in similar ways in both states, there are notable differences in qualification requirements and the amount paid per year, as demonstrated in table 1.These figures indicate that the maximum Head Start Benefit in Alaska is higher than that in Arizona.According to statisti cs on welfare-benefits comparison in the US states by the Washington Post (2011), Alaska had 7,974 r...
Tuesday, May 19, 2020
The central purpose of this essay is to critically discuss the importance of understanding human evolution and the history of psychology for the modern psychologist. For the human evolution, the essay will be addressing on how we and other species descended from our ancestors and how the different environment has helped to us to become more adaptable. Regarding the history of psychology, the essay will be discussing on how psychology branched off from the philosophy approach to become its own science. The essay will then go on discussing how the understanding of both human evolution and history of psychology would be used by modern psychologist. Every story has a beginning and an end. To be able to understand the importance of modernÃ¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦They were full bipedal and their brain size and brain patterns evolved by increasing (590-687 cc). Their diet was mainly meat which might have an influence on their rapid growth of their brains. (Tobias 1987). The next species to appear were the Homo erectus which might have descended from Homo habilis. They were the first human whose fossils were found outside of Africa. They also had larger brain than the species before them. Homo sapiens sapiens came after the Homo Neanderthalensis; they are the only human species around. This could have been due to the result of increase brain sizes that allows more cognitive abilities that help them adapt to different environment changes and hence survive. Global evidence have been found of art, music, and culture and advanced tool making. In MithenÃ¢â¬â¢s 3 phase of mind proposes that the shape of the NeanderthalsÃ¢â¬â¢ frontal lobe was similar to the one of the modern Homo sapiens and this indicated that they were able to cope with complex cognitive functioning. Evidence for this could be explained using the phonological approach by Frank Gall (1758-1828). Human evolution links with the history of psychology through Thomas WynnÃ¢â¬â¢s cognitive archaeology. Thomas Wynn (1979) wanted to find the link between archaeology and psychology. He used PiagetÃ¢â¬â¢s theory of development to argue that old humans had functional operational intelligence which requires forShow MoreRelatedEvolution And Its Impact On Human Evolution910 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pages Humans have gone through many stages of adaptation, allowing for great expansion and our unrivaled dominance of the earth. So it could seem as though humans have reached the peak of evolutionary development. Evolution is often thought of as a natural process, and were it not for humans, this might be true. However, evolution, in the strictest sense, is a change in the genetic structure of a population (Jurmain, et al., 5). While natural selection is a major contributor to the process of evolutionRead MoreThe Evolution Of Human Evolution1103 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesHuman evolution according to research started over 6 million years ago. The outcome of the evolution process is the current human beings. Scientific studies have revealed over the years a remarkable affinity between the chimpanzees/Apes and human beings. Even though this reality is not a definitive prove that human beings evolved from apes, it does show that the human beings are in one way or another related to other primat es. Scientists suppose that the humans and the primates shared a commonRead MoreEvolution And Its Effect On Human Evolution1826 Words Ã |Ã 8 Pages It is the key to our evolution is very much correct. Beneficial mutation can be a next step of human evolution as people get more adapted to their environment, greatly increasing their chance of successfully reproducing. Evolution is the process of the characteristics of an organism changing over a long period of time. There are two types of evolution: micro, where gene frequencies are shifted within the population, and macro, where a whole new species arises. Evolution occur through naturalRead MoreConvergent Evolution Of Human Evolution972 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pagesinstance of human evolution has been detected among the peoples of East Africa. It is the ability to digest milk in adulthood, conferred by genetic changes that occurred as recently as 3,000 years ago, a team of geneticists has found.The finding is a striking example of a cultural practice Ã¢â¬â the raising of dairy cattle Ã¢â¬â feeding back into the human genome. It also seems to be one of the first instances of convergent human evolution to be documented at the genetic level. Convergent evolution refers toRead MoreThe Evolution Of Humans And Humans978 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesHumans have existed on Earth for approximately 3.4 million y ears. The oldest known human ancestor is Lucy, an Australopithecus. Over this extensive period of time, humans have evolved significantly. Homo Sapiens have grown from 3 to almost 6 feet (average), lost most of the body hair, became leaner and adapted to walking. Humans have come a long way, from Australopithecus to Homo sapiens, from living in trees to living in cities. Slowly, through hundreds of thousands of years, we mutated over andRead MoreEvolution of Human3142 Words Ã |Ã 13 PagesHuman evolution is the biological and cultural development of humans. A human is any member of the species Homo sapiens, meaning wise man. Since at least the Upper Paleolithic era, some 40,000 years ago, every human society has devised a creation myth to explain how humans came to be. Creation myths are based on cultural beliefs that have been adopted as a legitimate explanation by a society as to where we came from. The science of paleoanthropology, which also tries to create a narrative aboutRe ad MoreHuman Evolution2755 Words Ã |Ã 12 PagesHuman Evolution Human Evolution, the biological and cultural development of the species Homo sapiens, or human beings. A large number of fossil bones and teeth have been found at various places throughout Africa, Europe, and Asia. Tools of stone, bone, and wood, as well as fire hearths, campsites, and burials, also have been discovered and excavated. As a result of these discoveries, a picture of human evolution during the past 4 to 5 million years has emerged. Human Physical Traits Humans areRead MoreThe Evolution Of The Human Body989 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesThe evolution of the human body can be observed from studying the intermediates found in ancestral organisms. Shubin proposes that every attribute that makes us human can be traced back to a time that showcases its importance for survival. Every single trait in the human body has been selected for through multiple mechanisms of evolution, natural selection being one of them. This theory is intriguing because not long ago it was unheard of to relate humans to fish, amphibians, reptiles, mammals, andRead MoreThe Evolution Of Human Origins1179 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesInitial ideas of human origins are reflected in the ancient mythologies. Later on, religious versions of human origins appeared. One of the most popular religious theory is creationism. According to it God had created men and everything else in the world. There are two types of creationism, young earth creationism and old earth c reationism . Ancient philosophy first proposed ideas of the natural origins of men. Most of its ideas were speculative. It was the product of the ancient philosophers` imaginationRead MoreThe Evolution Of The Human Body996 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pagesinformation website is primarily focused on the evolution of the human body. The web source provides various selections to choose from, including: the human evolution summary, timeline, hall of skulls, and their perspectives. Likewise, the human evolution page describes the fossil hominids and their origins. The author recapitulates the hominid family, which consists of Homo, Australopithecus, and Ardipithecus. Correspondingly, the human evolution timeline page includes six distinct topics that follow
Monday, May 18, 2020
The purpose of this investigation is to determine the role Ronald Reagan had in ending the Cold War. This topic is important because now that it is becoming accepted that Reagan had a goal in mind of ending communism when he became president, it is time to determine the way he accomplished the task of ending the Cold War. The research will focus primarily on deciding whether or not it was through exploiting Soviet vulnerabilities, negotiations, or a military build-up. In answering the inquiry question, the main sources that will be used will be a book and National Security Decision Directive 75 (NSDD 75). The book, a biography of Reagan written by Paul Kengor, titled The Crusader: Ronald Reagan and the Fall of Communism, views ReaganÃ¢â¬â¢sÃ¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦Ã¯â § In January 1981 during a meeting with the National Security Planning Group, CIA director Bill Casey shared his opinions of how the US should take down the USSR and Ã¢â¬Å"Reagan agreed with Casey that the administration should launch a concerted effort to play on Soviet vulnerabilitiesÃ¢â¬ and started creating a plan on how to do just that (The Crusader). Ã¯â § Reagan wanted to show the world all the Soviet UnionÃ¢â¬â¢s vulnerabilities that could be used to take it down. Using their vulnerabilities to our advantage by doing actions such as Ã¢â¬Å"covert financial and intelligence support to the Solidarity union in Poland and other opposition groups within the Soviet empire; financial and military support to the Afghan resistance; cooperative efforts with Saudi Arabia to drive down the price of oil, and limiting Soviet natural gas exports to the West, thereby reducing Soviet hard currency earnings; a campaign to limit Soviet access to Western high technology; a technological disinformation effort to help disrupt the Soviet economy; a massive U.S. defense buildup, including the SDI program, to put more pressure on Soviet economic resources; and financial, military and logistical support for anti-communist forces in several Third World countriesÃ¢â¬ (Reagan and End of the Cold War). Ã¯â § Ã¢â¬Å"There are a number of important weaknesses and vulnerabilities within the Soviet empire which the U.S. should exploit. U.S. policies should seek wherever possible to encourage Soviet allies to distanceShow MoreRelatedJimmy Carter and Ronald Reagan Analysis1118 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesRonald Reagan Analysis Paper HIS/145 January / 2014 Ã¢â¬Æ' Ronald Reagan was born in 1911 and died in 2004 the former president of the United States from 1981 to 1989 was also the governor of California from 1967 to 1975. Many people have mixed feelings of Ronald Reagan. Some did not like that Reagan was an actor before he became president of the United States. Attempted assassination In 1981 President Ronald Reagan survived an assassination attempt. The time was estimated around 2:25 p.mRead MoreIb Hl History Ia1632 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesHistory Internal Assessment Was President Ronald Reagan the reason for the Cold WarÃ¢â¬â¢s conclusion? Word Count: 1,634 Was President Ronald Reagan the reason for the Cold WarÃ¢â¬â¢s conclusion? A. Plan of Investigation This investigation focuses on the impact that President Ronald Reagan had on ending the Cold War between the United States of America and the Soviet Union during the 1980Ã¢â¬â¢s. The use of historian argumentation, primary sources, such as Ronald ReaganÃ¢â¬â¢s Address to the Nation on Defense andRead MoreContributions to the End of the Cold War1389 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesArrived, at the End of the War On Christmas Day 1991, at 7:35 p.m., the Soviet flag flying over the Kremlin was lowered and replaced by the new Russian Federation flag. The USSR officially ceased to exist on December 31, 1991. The fall of the Soviet Union signified the end of the Cold War (Nye 2). Obviously, this was a huge moment in our worldÃ¢â¬â¢s history; a 44-year-old tension between two of the most powerful countries in the world, which almost brought us to a combative war, was destroyed. But howRead MoreRonald Reagan Prolonged The Cold War Essay1539 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pagesfactor which played a part in ending the Cold War was the internal unrest of the Soviet Union. Also the ever changing system we know now as International Relations had a role in the conclusion of this time period. I will additionally argue the antithesis of the question and explain how Ronald Reagan prolonged the Cold War. Response: During the Second World War, USA and the Soviet Union came together against a common enemy. It was the immediate events after the War which lead to renewed tensionsRead MoreRonald Reagan s President Of The United States1129 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesAmerican people elected Ronald Reagan as President of the United States of America. Many people claim that Reagan was one of the greatest presidents of all time, while others believe that the country would have been much better off had Reagan never been elected. Regardless of their political preferences, it is undeniable that Ronald Reagan changed the world in the 1980s and his work as president will be forever remembered in the countless books of history. Ronald Reagan ran as a Republican andRead MoreThe Life And Career Of Ronald Reagan1686 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesLife and Career of Ronald Reagan Colorado State University Ã¢â¬â Global Campus HST 300 Jared Faurschou Introduction Ronald Wilson Reagan, elected as the 40th President of the United States of America in 1980. Became one of the most beloved and revered President in modern times. HeÃ¢â¬â¢s most known for bringing the end to the Cold War and helping bring an end to major communist activities in the world. There were several of ReaganÃ¢â¬â¢s policies that had an impact on ending the Cold War. In order to bringRead MoreThe Definition Of The Word Hero As A Man Admired For His Achievements And Noble Qualities1319 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pagesdefinition is a perfect portrait former United States president Ronald Reagan. During his presidency, Reagan showed that he was this man through his patriotism, family values and faith in God, achieving economic prosperity and peace and stability during international turmoil. Explaining why he is one of AmericaÃ¢â¬â¢s most revered presidents to date. Ronald Wilson Reagan was born on February 6, 1911 to parents John Ã¢â¬ËJackÃ¢â¬â¢ and Nelle Reagan along with older brother Neil in the small Midwest town of TampicoRead MoreRonald Reagan s Accomplishments And Accomplishments1509 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pages2017 Ronald Reagan Era From Hollywood to the White House, Ronald Reagan has always been a public favorite, especially among presidential history. Many people view him as an iconic political figure, who made bold decisions as part of his leadership. Reagan has been credited with numerous feats and failures, such as, reducing the poverty rate by cutting taxes and increasing defense spending, negotiating a nuclear arms reduction agreement with the Soviets to bring a quicker end to the Cold War, andRead MoreRonald Reagan s Accomplishments And Accomplishments1514 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pages2017 Ronald Reagan Era From Hollywood to the White House, Ronald Reagan has always been a public favorite, especially among presidential history. Many people view him as an iconic political figure, who made bold decisions as part of his leadership. Reagan has been credited with numerous feats and failures, such as, reducing the poverty rate by cutting taxes and increasing defense spending, negotiating a nuclear arms reduction agreement with the Soviets to bring a quicker end to the Cold War, andRead MoreWhat Makes a Great President1541 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pagesstill more talent and character to hold up under the pressures of life in the White House. Great presidents are skilled party leaders. In the 1930s, FDR rebuilt his party by forging a coalition that delivered five straight presidential victories. Reagan also revived his party, in disarray after the scandals of the Nixon administration. He unified Southerners, laborers, entrepreneurs and religious conservatives into a powerful block that swept the Repub licans to three victories in the 1980 s.
Wednesday, May 6, 2020
Should it be important for policymakers and specialists to think about the academic investigation of International Relations? The individuals that conduct foreign arrangements regularly disregard academic scholars. However, there is an inevitable connection between the conceptual universe of hypothesis and the present policymaking because in our current reality all nations are in a manner interdependent, and this is where the importance of the study of International Relations comes. The connections between global forces are turning out to be more pertinent to Americans, as issues concerning them become more intricate of forces abroad. Understanding universal relations is critical to a world where thousands of atomic weapons exist and more nations are attempting to obtain them, where a large number of people die every day from neediness brought about by the manner in which the international system works, and where suicide terrorist assaults like the ones of September 11, 2001, come al l of a sudden. (REF Singer J. David; The Level-of-Analysis Problem in International Relations Pg. 77) It has a common belief that the cause of the 9/11 assaults was an identity conflict between the Western powers and the non-democratic governments in the Middle East. According to The Washington Post columnist Jim Hoagland who wrote about the attacks a year after they happened, Ã¢â¬Å"The removal of Saddam Hussein [then IraqÃ¢â¬â¢s leader] and Yasser Arafat [then leader of the PalestinianShow MoreRelatedThe Relationship Between Policymaker And Ic946 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesWhich should it be Ã¢â¬Å"distantÃ¢â¬ or Ã¢â¬Å"proximateÃ¢â¬ ? Encarta dictionary defines balance as a state in which two opposing factors are of equal importance so that they effectively cancel each other out and stability is maintained. (Microsoft nd) The balanced result of what is Ã¢â¬Å"distantÃ¢â¬ and Ã¢â¬Å"proximateÃ¢â¬ relationships can be set so that stability is maintained and is the answer to the question posed concerning the relationship between policymaker and IC that both Ã¢â¬Å"distantÃ¢â¬ and Ã¢â¬Å"proximateÃ¢â¬ relationships can affordRead MoreChallenges Of The Uk Healthcare System992 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pagesmortality rates can be greatly reduced if CVD is managed by cardiologist; however, the Department of Health (2013) reports cardiologist are only managing 40-60% of CVD patients. Policies aimed at ensuring GP follow best practice protocols is extremely important. Manipulating Wait Time Data to Achieve Targets Wait times have also been a long-term problem for the NHS. As a result, they introduced wait time targets in 2000. Facilities performances towards achieving targets are widely publicized and areRead MoreHealth Community And Society Advocate Healthy Life Style For Preventing Chronic Disease Development1194 Words Ã |Ã 5 Pagesservices are lower than treatment provided by specialists (Shi, 2012). Health care insurance also provides greater coverage in hospital-based procedures in which high technology medical treatments are applied. Therefore, primary care physicians deviate from providing quality primary health care services and begin implementing specialty services. In addition, lack of current primary care physicians incentive support medical students seek specialists route. Another disadvantage of primary care physiciansRead MoreReadiness Audit For Gulliver Academy996 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pagesinternational: Growing and connecting leaders in education, n.d.). A team of auditors will use the 5 standards to evaluate the effectiveness of a curriculum. The auditing team is usually comprised of administrators, lead teachers, and a curriculum specialist. The audit team will conduct site visits, interviews, and use documents to determine if the curriculum was written correctly, taught properly, and tested effectively (Phi delta kappa international: Growing and connecting leaders in education, nRead MorePayday Loans Should Not Be Legal1705 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pagesencrypted websites to ensure that the consumers information is kept confidential. Payday loans can easily get out of control, which makes it very important for one to use them only when necessary. Situations such as paying medical bills, covering car repairs, saving money on late fees that could produce a dip in credit rating, etc. are all instances when one should consider a payday loan. With this being said, however, it is crucial to remember that the best way to prevent unmanageable payday loan feesRead MoreDisparity in Health Care Between Blacks and Whites in the US784 Words Ã |Ã 3 Pagesthe same resources available as those seeing the majority of white patients. Compared with physicians seeing the mostly white patients, physicians seeing mostly black patients were 33% less likely to report always having access to high quality specialists, and 40% less likely to report always having access to high quality diagnostic imaging. In short, black patients are using a different health system than white patients on average and the health system black patients are using has fewer resourcesRead MoreEssay On Lack Of Accountability1459 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pageshaving tangible evidence to show policymakers allows for institutions to show that they are having a positive impact on individuals (Zumeta, 2011). The purpose of this paper is to analyze how the lack of accountability within higher learning institutions fails to sufficiently and adequately address sexual misconduct and harassment. Then, through a review of the literature, this paper discusses the importance of having a universal set of guidelines all institutions should follow in order to achieve consistencyRead MoreHurt, Pain, Physical And Mental Distraught Are Just A Few1597 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pages At least 20% reported being bullied on school grounds and over 16% were victims of some type of cyberbullying.Ã¢â¬ (http://resources.uknowkids.com/blog/bid/302867/The-Educational-Impact-of-Bullying-and-Cyberbullying) Freedom of speech is an important issue and it is vital that we protect that freedom. Freedom of speech is protected by the First Amendment to the Constitution. But, I donÃ¢â¬â¢t think Ã¢â¬Å"our forefathers envisioned a world of smartphone cameras and social platformsÃ¢â¬ (WiredKids, Inc). InRead MoreQuality Assurance Essay1265 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pagesthe families, the community and to public education; many allied health professions specialize in the promotion of optimum function and health and the improvement of health-related quality of life. In addition, health systems administration are important gears of allied health. Managing the growth of allied health care sector in the United State. Healthcare delivery system changings are most effectual when they are cohesive and ensure real answerability from providers to patient to improve outcomesRead MoreNurses Code Of Ethics Or Standards Of Practice914 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pagescrucial for nurses to recognize how they would act in a particular situation and clearly identify if this action would violate the nurses code of ethics or standards of practice. All healthcare specialists are faced with ethical dilemmas that put strain on professional and personal values but nurses should use the ethical and legislative framework to support their decisions (Inggs Christensen, 2015, p. 20) In what phase of the policymaking process would Sue enter to initiate changes? Nurses play
What was the first ident? The 2 December 1953 saw the landing of the first ident, nicknamed the Bat s Wings. This was an intricate mechanical contraption built by Abram Games, which included a minor turning globe in the middle, encompassed by two turning eyes, with lightning flashes to either side. The historical backdrop of BBC TV idents starts in the mid 1950s, when the BBC initially showed a logo between projects to recognize its administration. As new innovation has ended up accessible, these gadgets have developed from basic still highly contrasting pictures to the refined full shading short movies seen today. With the landing of advanced administrations in the United Kingdom, and with them numerous all the more new channels, marking is seen by telecasters to be a great deal more critical, implying that idents need to emerge from the opposition. Idents initially began in the mid 1950 s. BBC was the first channel to begin showing a logo in the middle of projects to distinguish it s channel. Since innovation is considerably more propelled that the 1950 s, a straightforward highly contrasting picture has now turned into the full shading short clasps as seen on TV today. This was the first ever ident utilized, it was utilized from 1953 to 1960, and the rings around the inside speck would turn and pivot, while the wings would streak. A harp jingle went with it. The main shading ident was presented in 1969; the shading blue and dark was utilized for the mechanicalShow MoreRelatedUse Of 3d Modelling And Motion Graphics Of Idents For Multimedia Organisations1245 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesContents Introduction 2 The RequirementÃ¢â¬â¢s 2 The Objective 2 Targeted audience 2 Existing Idents 3 E4 Ã¢â¬â Beach ident 2007 3 BBC Three Ã¢â¬â Outro/Purple World Ident 2008 4 BBC Four Lake Ident 4 References 6 Introduction This report will talk about the use of 3D modelling and motion graphics to create idents for multimedia organisations. The requirements, objectives and targeted audience of the idents will be discussed and all declarations are justified with supporting evidence. The RequirementÃ¢â¬â¢sRead MoreThe Future Of Mobile Phones975 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pageswireless technology was two-way radio, much like the modern two-way radio we have today. It wasnÃ¢â¬â¢t until the late 40Ã¢â¬â¢s and early 60Ã¢â¬â¢s that the Mobile Telephone Service (MTS) was introduced. Unlike, the two-way radio, this technology was nowhere near what wireless mobile phones are today and weighed 30-45 pounds. You could either speak or listen, but you could not do both (A Brief History of Wireless Technology). By 1970 a new standard of Improved Mobile Phone Service (IMPS) was put into place. ThereRead MoreA Short Story1098 Words Ã |Ã 5 Pagestraffic and metadata, indicated to him there was at least one bad actor aboard. At this hour, still technically within the Midwatch , an hour and a half before Morning Watch, many would be asleep. The ships environmental system and lights were calibrated to help create a semblance of the natural daily cycle. Tests and experience showed it was much cheaper and more effective than drugs to keep the basic health and sanity of the crew. Sleep psychosis was a real thing and spacers were more prone to itRead MoreThe National Security Agency Invasion1090 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesLiving in a country that is known to be Ã¢â¬Å"Land of the freeÃ¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ is not exactly what most people dream of. The United States may be known for its freedom and power, but most people are unaware of the covertness behind the government. And by now, almost every American citi zen knows that privacy no longer exists. In this century and country, it really does not. In the United States, most people look toward the government as salvation, protection, and reliance. Unfortunately, not everything is as goodRead MoreA Report On Online Gambling1869 Words Ã |Ã 8 PagesBlog 4 - 32Red posts record revenue results for the first half of 2016 32Red, one of the most popular casino online gambling operators around, recently released their figures for the first half of 2016. Glancing over the report, it appears that things are looking pretty rosy for the online casino, as they reported record revenues for the first half of the year. The headline from the report is that year-on-year revenue has increased 63% to a total of Ã £30.4 million, but that certainly doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t tellRead MoreStop Motion Animation2685 Words Ã |Ã 11 Pagesare commonly childrenÃ¢â¬â¢s shows such as Morph, Shaun the sheep, Bagpuss, The Clangers, Noddy and Wallace and Gromits World of Invention. The advantage of stop motion animation is that you can be creative because there arent many limitations on what you can do with an object like you do in real life. The disadvantage is that its very time consuming and extremely laborious and you have to make sure the cameras still because one little slip up shows very clearly. Clay animation:Read More The United States Visitor and Immigration Status Indicator Technology (US-VISIT) Program3830 Words Ã |Ã 16 PagesThe United States Visitor and Immigration Status Indicator Technology (US-VISIT) Program Introduction The United States Visitor and Immigration Status Indicator Technology (US-VISIT) program was introduced on January 5th, 2004 at all air and sea ports of the United States of America. This program, as outlined by the Department of Homeland Security, aims to increase the level of security in the U.S. while allowing it to remain a multicultural land with people from all parts of the worldRead MoreBorder and Coastal Security2925 Words Ã |Ã 12 Pagesattacks from different angles. The Department of Homeland Security was created to deal with and address the threat of international terrorism (Securing AmericaÃ¢â¬â¢s Borders). The priority mission of this department is homeland security. The Hart-Rudman Commission had three innovations they were trying to accomplish. The first of which the commission thought the United States needed to push its borders outward, developing what it called a Ã¢â¬Å"layered defenseÃ¢â¬ (Alden, 2009, p. 39). The senators thoughtRead MoreMarket Segmentation, Targeting and Positioning2658 Words Ã |Ã 11 Pagescertain markets and how these markets are identified. Think about universities: how do they identify which students to touch with about degrees schemes? What criteria or base (variables) do they use? Do they base it on where you live, your age, or your previous schooling scores? Do they market to postgraduate and undergraduate groups differently, what about international and domestic student groups----is this difference important for the effective marketing of higher education services to students?Read MoreNew Orleans Public School Crisis2646 Words Ã |Ã 11 Pagesdoors of William Frantz Public School in New Orleans, Louisian a, she walked into the pages of history. Ruby was the first African American student at this previously all-white school on the 14th of November, 1960. This was the New Orleans Public School Crisis, and this was just the beginning of all the riots to come. The equality of Blacks and Whites was nonexistent, and social justice was poor because of the racial prejudices that stood in the way. Blacks were not allowed to have the same education
Question: Discuss about theEconomics of Globalization for Vietnams Economy. Answer: Introduction: This study is examined to understand the economy of Vietnam and do an analysis on the Vietnams economy. It is one of the fastest growing economies of Asia. Vietnam is a developing economy but it is expected that soon it will be a developed company. In the first section of this study, Vietnam economy has been described. Vietnams government is applying many policies to overcome all the problems and make their nation best one. In the second section, the study revel about Production performance output that what are production performance output and an analysis on production performance analysis of Vietnam in 2005- 2016. In third section, study on Labour market analysis has been done. In this section it is described that what is labour market and an analysis study on Vietnam labour market in 2005-2016. In fourth section, Price level analysis has been done. This section describes about price level and price level analysis in Vietnam from 2005-2016. The last section is a conclusion section. Economy of Vietnam: Viet Nam had declared one of the highest rates of poverty reduction and economic growth in the world though it was accompanied by higher inequality. There are several factors behind these improvements. Some of the factors are pragmatic party leadership, strong governing and market institutions, wide reaching network of infrastructure, economic policies, initial investment for human development, focus on agriculture and many more (Vandemoortele Bird, 2011). Vietnams economy is increasing rapidly in recent years. Its Gross domestic product (GDP) was 8.4% in 2005. It forecasted 8.0% in 2006. Vietnams highly export helped its economy to grow more rapidly Still much of the population of Vietnam living at rural area and heavily dependent on Biomass energy source (Focus economics,2016). These are dung, rice husks and wood. Thus, the per capita commercial consumption rank of Vietnam is among the lowest in Asia. Its commercial energy is expected to rise in further years because of increasing the rate of natural gas consumption. Currently in Vietnam the economic activities have lost some speed in comparison of last quarter. The internal reason behind this slow rate is industrial production growth and external reason is less export and high import. The main reason behind less export is Samsung phone scandal, as the phones quality and features are not good enough and it had been manufactured in Vietnam. Production Output Performance Analysis: Production is a kind of process where various material and immaterial inputs combining together for make something to consume. Production output performance is a kind of regular measurement done to check the result or outcome, which generates a reliable data of output on its efficiency and effectiveness. Output Information doesnt tell anything related to actual result achieved or the significance of service and product delivered. Output information is needed by a country to analyze the size of input and activities produce. In 2005, Vietnams growth rate of manufacturing sector had increased more than 9%. Vietnam had exposed itself from domestic market to foreign market. Vietnam had expanded its export of manufacturing goods such as footwear and textiles. The liberalization impacted on service sector also as retail and transport service. The people started shifting from agriculture sector to non agriculture sector. Vietnam manufacturing sector has expanded by 9.3% in 2005 and labour productivity has been increased by 3.1%. As this sector is having a part of 30% of overall GDP, the rapid growth of this department made a sustainable change in Vietnams economy. The competitive strength of Vietnam in 2005 was agriculture, service and industry. The main industry of manufacturing sector was ready made clothes and electrical equipment with 12.9% and 12.0% share respectively. The export rate was also increasing in this period. It was among the fastest and largest growing agriculture export country in Asia at that time (Hoang, 2008). In 2016, the GDP of Vietnam has been rose by 6.7%, more than expected. The performance of manufacturing department is very strong currently with a sharp growth in output, improving in the demand of client and competitive pricing. In this period, many efforts are doing by Vietnam government through make the changes in exchange rate for enhancing the manufacturing sector more. In Vietnams the FDI is also increasing from last few years. Exports have been increased by 10% with a surplus of US$ 2.5 billion. Vietnam public is more skilled now, people are doing work with more effectiveness and efficiency to achieve their target and make the profit. It is directly impacting on GDP of Vietnam. Soon, it is expected by Vietnam to be a developed company. The policies of former government were quite nice and the same is expecting by public from new government. Thus, it can be concluded that industry is so far so good. Many significant changes has been done in the industry to change the economy of Vietnam from developing to a developed country. Many foreign companies are manufacturing their product in Vietnam right now like Samsung. Vietnam is inviting more FDI to invest in their country and making it a competitive country in the market. Labour Market Analysis: Labour market is a place where employees and labour meet with each other. In this market, an employer looks for the best employee whereas workers find for a satisfying job. It is a part of economy where demand and supply of labour is analyzed. Here, Labour demand stands for the firms demand of labour and Supply stands for workers supply in the market. The demand and supply of labour is influenced by bargaining power of both the parties (Berg, 2015). Labour market of Vietnam was in the process of establishment in 2005. There were many shortcomings like partitioned by regions, partition by territories, undeveloped and lack of legal framework etc). The labour market size of Vietnam was 11.10 millions, 25.6% of total labour in Vietnam. The policies affected only non-agriculture sector workers only. Agriculture sector and forestry sector employees were remained limited (Kline, 2007). In 2005, approx 6% labour were engaged in agriculture sector, 22% labour in non agriculture sector and remained 72% people were self employed out of which 53% self employed people were in agriculture-forestry-fishery sector. Vietnams government was focusing more on labour and their employment. There were 177 public employment introduction centres. Nationwide, approx 3000 employment consultancy introduced in 2005. Thus Vietnams labour market was emerging in 2005. Still because of low competitiveness in the labour market, there were imbalance between demand and supply of labour. In 2016, Vietnams labour market is increasing rapidly. Currently, there are 70.17 million people over there among them 24.48 are living in urban area. The inactive population over the age of 15 is 15.77 million people that have been decreased from previous year (General Statistics Office of Vietnam (GSO), 2008). The labour market participation is increasing continuously even the share in labour market of women has also increased. The quality and quantity of labour Supply has been improved in comparison of last years. A significant change has been found among the school and college going students (Lodhi, 2010). The ratio of skilled labour has been increased in the market of Vietnam. The skilled workers group has divided into 5 groups:Above university there are 134 thousand people (2.77%); Professional degree holder are 454 thousand people (3.06%); 33,000 people from vocational college (18.37%); secondary and primary people are 68,000 people (9.48%) and 46,000 people respectively. There is a declining trend in Agriculture, forestry and fisheries labour also as they all are shifting in non agriculture sector now (Thuy et all, 2015). Thus, the market scenario has been changed in a large manner from 2005 to 2016. There are so many changes in the industry. Vietnam has proved itself as one of the rapidly changing countries of Asia. In comparison of 2005, there is more skilled labour in the market and wages rate has also been increased. Because of Globalization, labour requirement has also been increased and its result is showing on the GDP of Vietnam. Price Level Analysis: Price level is a technique of measurement of current price of any services or goods in the economy in a specific country at a specified time. This technique helps an economist to monitor the changes into the price of goods and services. Price changes due to either inflation or deflation in the market. If there is inflation in the market, the price level will be increased and if there is deflation in the market, then price level will be decreased. The most common type of price level measurement is consumer price index (CPI). This helps a country to know about its economy and competitive advantage (Arnold, 2008). In 2005, the economic growth rate was high with an average rate of 7% per annum. Inflation was managed at a low rate because of high oil prices, bird flu, and rice demand in international market. Vietnam became member of WTO in 2005 and after it the landscape of the country has been improved. In 2005, a huge hike has been noticed in world market and it impacted to Vietnams economy with a great increment in consumer price index (An, 2005). Prices of foodstuffs and food, services etc had increased due to rose in the price of oil and petrol in 2005. As a result of it many products price has been increased specially that product which consumes oil pr petrol while manufacturing (Ngoc, Trinh Thanh, 2007). Thus, a new and higher price level had been detected in Vietnam economy (Vinh Fujita, 2007). The CPI was increased by 6.8% at the end of 2005. The new price level impacted on the economy of Vietnam and it resulted as a poor competitiveness of enterprises, products and economy as a whole (General Statistics Office of Vietnam (GSO), 2008). The CPI of Vietnam in 2016 is increased to 104.67 points in November. In the first 3 months of 2016, 1.3% inflation rates has been rose due to these reasons: Development and investment in Vietnams macroeconomic report, draught has caused an increment in agriculture price, foreign investment plan and free trade agreement have become effective. The increase in the price of medical service, fuel, education, food etc plays key role in the rise of CPI. CPI is out of the control of government. The raise into price of goods drives a higher rate of inflation. Commercial bank forecasted that inflation rate of 2016 in Vietnam will be more than 5% and the same happened (Trading Economics, 2016). The inflation rate increased more than expected and it is because of natural disaster, severe population and price of oil. The inflation rate was increased in 2005 and 2016 unexpectedly. The reason behind it is some natural problems, higher prices in world market, oil and petrol price increment etc. The more inflation rate, more price of products and at the time of deflation rate, less price of products. The reasons behind gradually increasing the inflation rate are price decided by WTO and oil and petrol prices. Conclusion: After studying many published articles, newspapers, research papers, books and many more, it can be concluded that Vietnams macroeconomic is rapidly increasing. The economy of Vietnam is among the fastest growing economies in Asia. This essay is revealing about product performance output that how a products output impacts on economy of a nation, Price level analysis that how price of a product and inflation rate of a country impacts its whole economy and their competitive advantages, Labour market analysis tells about demand and supply of labour and its impact on Vietnams economy. It can be concluded after doing this study that Vietnam is an emerging country and policies applied by the government of Vietnam are really working and helping this nation to grow up. This country is focusing on each element to be a developed company and exports are continuously increasing of this nation that is helping this nation to maintain the inflation rate. Reference: Vandemoortele, M. Bird, K. (2011). Viet Nams progress on economic growth and poverty reduction: Impressive improvements. Overseas Development Institute. Kline P.M. (2007). Three essays on Labour market analysis: Dissertation Summary. Viewed on 12 Dec 2016 from https://research.upjohn.org/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=1010context=dissertation_awards An D. V. (2005). Vietnam Economy 2001-2005 and socio economic development plan 2006-2010. Viewed on 12 Dec 2016 from https://www.eaber.org/sites/default/files/documents/CIEM_Dinh_2006_02.pdf. Trading Economics (2016). Vietnam Consumer Price Index (CPI). Viewed on 12 Dec 2016 from https://www.tradingeconomics.com/vietnam/consumer-price-index-cpi Vinh, N. Fujita S. (2007). The impact of real exchange rate on output and inflation in Vietnam: A VAR approach. Viewed on 12 Dec 2016 from https://www.lib.kobe-u.ac.jp/repository/80200043.pdf. Berg, J. (2015). Labour markets, Institutions and Inequality. Edward Elger Publishing. Arnold, R. A. (2008). Macroeconomics. Cengage learning. General Statistics Office of Vietnam (GSO) (2008). National Accounts Online, viewed on 12 Dec 2016 from https://www.gso.gov.vn/default_en.aspx?tabid=468idmid=3ItemID=6193, accessed 01st July 2008. General Statistics Office of Vietnam (GSO) (2008). National Accounts Online, viewed on 12 Dec 2016 from https://www.gso.gov.vn/default_en.aspx?tabid=468idmid=3ItemID=6193, accessed 01st July 2008. Lodhi, A. H. A. (October, 2010). Land, Labour and Agrarian Transition in Vietnam. Journal of Agarian Change, Vol. 10, pp 564-580. Focus Economics. (November, 2016). Vietnam Economic Outlook. Viewed on 12 Dec 2016 from https://www.focus-economics.com/countries/vietnam Ngoc, Q. P., Trinh, Q. B. Thanh, D. N. (2007). Economic performance of Vietnam, 1976- 2000: New evidence from input-output model?, DEPOCEN Working Paper Series No. 2007/13. Hoang, V. Q. (2008). Vietnam Economic Times. Voung Quan Hoang. Thuy, N. T. Et all (2015). Exploring vietnams progress in economic growth. Swiss programme for research on global issue for development. World trade Institute.